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Jackson's 86-year-old Bobby Rush received a Best Traditional Blues Album nomination for his album “Rawer Than Raw.” Rush previously won a Grammy award for his 2017 record, “Porcupine Meat.” Tracking information is emailed when order ships. Operations in meat processing plants comprises the manufacture of value added products from primary products of meat origin and non-meat origin such as Prof’s kilishi factory in University of Benin, Benin City (Igene.2009).There are three principles of meat hygiene which are crucial for meat processing operation: prevent microbial contamination of raw materials, intermediate (semi-manufactured) goods and final products during meat products manufacturer through absolute cleanliness of tools, working tables, machines as well as hands and outfits of personnels, minimize microbial growth in raw materials, semi-manufactured goods and final products storing them at a low temperature, Reduce or eliminate microbial contamination by applying heat treatment at the final processing stage for extension of shelf life products,(except dried and fermented final products which are shelf stable through low ph).However, processing of meat in Nigeria with reference to Edo state is in a high deplorable state(lgene,1984).The brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) is a rodent species that occurs predominantly in the forests of equatorial Africa. Raw 2007 Hoochie Man 2000 Sitting on Top of the Blues 2019 One Monkey Don't Stop No Show 1995 Show You a Good Time 2011 Featured On. If you do not receive a … Place in casserole large enough to place side by side. Pour the tomato sauce around the meatballs and cover the dish tightly with foil. Rush, at age 82, is at the peak of his powers as a singer, songwriter, harmonica player, and entertainer. Go with a slow cook , white wine, chicken broth and your favorite garlic sauce. Pure cultures of bacterial and fungal isolates were obtained on the Nutrient Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar respectively. The culturing and isolation of each smoked and raw porcupine meat samples was done by putting one gram of each smoked and raw porcupine meat in 10ml of sterile distilled water.1ml was pipetted from it and added to next distilled water, making a dilution of 10-2.Dilutions were made by mixing 1.0ml of the homogenate in 9.0ml of sterile distilled water to obtain 10-3 dilution. Six genera of bacteria and five genera of fungi were isolated. ADVERT SPACE ! The samples had no E. coli and other serious food-borne pathogens; such as Klebsiella sp. Andrew Zimmern, whose stomach has hosted more animals than Noah’s Ark, has made a career vicariously eating on behalf of the unadventurous among us. The samples (raw and smoked porcupine meat) were sourced from three different locations (Egor, Ovia North-east and Oredo L.G.As) in Edo State. Vasti Jackson) 2. TABLE OF CONTENTTitle page---------iiAbstract---------iiiAcknowledgement --------ivCertification---------vDedication---------viTable of Contents--------viiList of Tables---------xList of Plates--------xiCHAPTER ONE1.0Introduction--------11.1Justification and Objective of Study-----2CHAPTER TWO2.0Literature Review-------42.1Porcupines--------42.2Porcupine Consumption and Popularity in Edo State---42.3Porcupine Diseases and Infestations----62.4Food-borne Diseases-------62.5Food Poisoning-------72.5.1Allergic Reactions------82.5.2Food Intoxication------82.6Prevention of Food Contamination -----9CHAPTER THREE3.0Materials and Methods------103.1Samples Collections-------103.2Preparation of Media-------103.2.1Nutrient Agar for Bacteria Evaluation---103.2.2Potato Dextrose Agar for Fungi Evaluation---103.3Isolation of Microorganisms------113.3.1Isolation of Pure Cultures-----113.3.2Identification of Isolates-----113.4Gram Staining--------123.4.1Spore Stain-------123.5Biochemical Test-------123.5.1Oxidase Test-------123.5.2Catalase Test-------133.5.3Coagulase Test------133.5.4 Urease Test-------133.5.5Indole Test-------143.6Fungal Identification-------143.7Statistical Analysis-------14CHAPTER FOUR4.0Results---------164.1Result on Microbial Analysis------22CHAPTER FIVE5.0Discussion--------235.1Discussion on Microbial Analysis-----23CHAPTER SIX6.0Conclusion and Recommendation-----25References--------26Appendix ---------30LIST OF TABLESTable 4.1:Total Viable Bacterial Counts (cfu/g) of smoked porcupine meat -----16Table 4.2:Total Viable Fungal Counts (cfu/g) of smoked porcupine meat -------17Table 4.3:Total Viable Bacterial counts ( cfu/g) of raw porcupine meat 18Table 4.4:Total Viable Fungal counts ( cfu/g) of raw porcupine meat -19Table 4.5:Cultural, Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of the Bacterial Isolates from Raw and Smoked Porcupine Meat 20Table 4.6:Cultural and Microscopic Characteristics of the Bacterial Isolates from Raw and Smoked Porcupine Meat --21LIST OF PLATEPlate 4.1:Serial dilution Process------41Plate 4.2:Presence of Bacterial Isolates-----42Plate 4.3:Microbial Isolation------43Plate 4.4:Numbering of Sterile Petri-dishes----44Plate 4.5:Smoked Porcupine Meat-----45CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION Microbiological evaluation has been and continued to be a useful tool for determining the ability of a food (meat) to support the growth of spoilage organisms or pathogens. 1.1Justification and Objective of Study—–2, 2.2Porcupine Consumption and Popularity in Edo State—4, 2.3Porcupine Diseases and Infestations—-6, 3.2.1Nutrient Agar for Bacteria Evaluation—10, 3.2.2Potato Dextrose Agar for Fungi Evaluation—10, Table 4.1:Total Viable Bacterial Counts (cfu/g) of smoked, Table 4.2:Total Viable Fungal Counts (cfu/g) of smoked porcupine, Table 4.3:Total Viable Bacterial counts ( cfu/g) of raw porcupine meat 18, Table 4.4:Total Viable Fungal counts ( cfu/g) of raw porcupine meat -19, Table 4.5:Cultural, Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of the, Bacterial Isolates from Raw and Smoked Porcupine Meat 20, Table 4.6:Cultural and Microscopic Characteristics of the Bacterial, Isolates from Raw and Smoked Porcupine Meat –21, Plate 4.2:Presence of Bacterial Isolates—–42, Plate 4.4:Numbering of Sterile Petri-dishes—-44. Using first four ingredients make into meat balls. It has an average body weight of 3kg and is a widely hunted and favoured protein source for both rural and urban populace In Nigeria ( Jori et al., 1998).In these regions, the porcupine meat frequently fetches higher prices than that from domestic or other game species. The culturing and isolation of each smoked and raw porcupine meat samples was done by putting one gram of each smoked and raw porcupine meat in 10ml of sterile distilled water.1ml was pipetted from it and added to next distilled water, making a dilution of 10-2.Dilutions were made by mixing 1.0ml of the homogenate in 9.0ml of sterile distilled water to obtain 10-3 dilution. Raw meat dishes are commonly offered on restaurant menus around the world, but you may wonder whether they're safe. The culturing and isolation of each smoked and raw porcupine meat samples was done by putting one gram of each smoked and raw porcupine meat in 10ml of sterile distilled water.1ml was pipetted from it and added to next distilled water, making a dilution of 10-2.Dilutions were made by mixing 1.0ml of the homogenate in 9.0ml of sterile distilled water to obtain 10-3 dilution. ». hamburger 1/2 c. raw rice 1 tsp. When the rice sticks out, these meatballs resemble a little ‘porcupine’. There have however been records of porcupine scavenging the meat from animal carcasses too, which they have dragged back to their dens to consume; they’re not picky at all! Porcupine Meatball Bowl – add mashed potatoes to a bowl, swirl on some sauce, add a few meatballs and a drizzle of more sauce. Get Complete Project Material File(s) Now! The evaluation of spoilage organisms or microbes can be on the increase in raw than smoked due to the latter having undergone processing as Pathogens do not survive under heat (Vesteergard,2004).Meat processing hygiene is a part of quality management of meat which refers to the hygienic measures to be taken during the processing steps in the manufacture of meat products (WHO,2002).Regulatory authorities usually provide the compulsory national frame work for food (meat) hygiene programmes through laws and regulations and monitor the implementation of such laws. You can eat it raw but DONT those critters are known for tape worms so make sure its cooked fully and check the meat. Bobby Rush (Homer, 10 novembre 1933) è un musicista, compositore e cantante statunitense blues e R&B. You have to probably peel the skin and the sticks. Disease-causing agents present in porcupine meat have been known for the cause of some health risk involving diseases and therefore, the need to employ some strategies towards evaluating the microbial load of this food commodity since it also helps in achieving food security as a mini-livestock. Bobby Rush: an American music icon, is credited as creating: "folk-funk." Every once in a while she asks me to make my vegan meatballs for her, and she says she likes them better than ones made with real meat. Cover and … This work will also examine the possible sources of contamination and re-contamination of porcupine meat sold in Edo State with respect to the zones or locations where the meat was purchased. Due to high level of hunting of these species leading to a larger market of these products in Edo state, there is need for perpetual microbiological analysis and also to check contaminant in foods from the surrounding environment in order to know their risk levels and thus making the public aware on health risks in consuming raw or undercooked and under processed snail meat to prevent zoonotic diseases e.g Ebola. Porcupine Meat (feat. It also plays an important role in the validation of processes that are intended to deliver some degree of lethality against a target 0rganism or group of target organisms (Vasteergard, 2004).Porcupine meat (Raw and Smoked) potential shelf life can be determined through microbiological challenge studies. It is the most abundant bushmeat sold in Gabon. Porcupine meatballs are made with ground beef, rice, onion, tomato soup, and seasonings. I personally love the texture that the rice gives these meatballs. sp. 3.To compare the microbial status of raw and smoked porcupine meat. The samples from Egor LGA recorded the highest count with 3.54 x 103cfu/g and 2.58 x 103 cfu/g for smoked and raw porcupine meat samples respectively. It also plays an important role in the validation of processes that are intended to deliver some degree of lethality against a target 0rganism or group of target organisms (Vasteergard, 2004).Porcupine meat (Raw and Smoked) potential shelf life can be determined through microbiological challenge studies. These organisms may remain in porcupines not as pathogens but as normal flora, but they can also cause diseases if eaten raw or improperly cooked, hence this study will help evaluate the various species of micro-organisms that are of public concerns.This work will also help evaluate microbiological load before processing, after processing the quantity of micro-organisms that re-contaminate smoked porcupine meat sold for consumption in the various locations in Edo State where the study was conducted. 0 0. 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The evaluation of spoilage organisms or microbes can be on the increase in raw than smoked due to the latter having undergone processing as Pathogens do not survive under heat (Vesteergard,2004).Meat processing hygiene is a part of quality management of meat which refers to the hygienic measures to be taken during the processing steps in the manufacture of meat products (WHO,2002).Regulatory authorities usually provide the compulsory national frame work for food (meat) hygiene programmes through laws and regulations and monitor the implementation of such laws. . A meatball is ground meat rolled into a small ball, sometimes along with other ingredients, such as bread crumbs, minced onion, eggs, butter, and seasoning. Rawer Than Raw is a spiritual sequel to Rush’s 2007 all-original album Raw . 2. Six genera of bacteria and five genera of fungi were isolated. and Enterobacter. This article reviews the safety of eating raw meat. The microbiological status of raw and smoked porcupine meat sold in Benin City were investigated. To evaluate the microbial status of smoked ready-to-eat porcupine. Heat oven to 325 degrees. sp. They eat leaves, herbs, twigs, green plants (live clover), and in the winter they sometimes eat bark. It is important to know and evaluate the microbial population of porcupine meat consumed in Edo state because bacteriological studies showed that various bacteria which are potential pathogens inhabit different organs and tissues including lungs, liver, kidney, and stomach and the gastro-intestinal tract of African porcupine species and also those sold and processed in the markets are not well packaged for consumption, hence they are susceptible to microbial re-contamination after processing. Bake for 1 hr, then remove the foil and bake until the tops are just browning, 20 to 25 minutes more. Pour sauce over meat balls. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Well, last weekend she asked me if I could make some vegan porcupine meatballs, like they used to serve at her school when she was little. These well-seasoned porcupine meatballs in a rich tomato sauce are one of my mom's best main dishes. SAUCE: 1 can tomato soup 1/2 c. water. All orders are shipped via US First Class Mail, Media Mail, Priority Mail, or Smart Post. I always have some extra minced meat in the freezer, in case I do not have any ideas what to make for diner. Operations in meat processing plants comprises the manufacture of value added products from primary products of meat origin and non-meat origin such as Prof’s kilishi factory in University of Benin, Benin City (Igene.2009).There are three principles of meat hygiene which are crucial for meat processing operation: prevent microbial contamination of raw materials, intermediate (semi-manufactured) goods and final products during meat products manufacturer through absolute cleanliness of tools, working tables, machines as well as hands and outfits of personnels, minimize microbial growth in raw materials, semi-manufactured goods and final products storing them at a low temperature, Reduce or eliminate microbial contamination by applying heat treatment at the final processing stage for extension of shelf life products,(except dried and fermented final products which are shelf stable through low ph).However, processing of meat in Nigeria with reference to Edo state is in a high deplorable state(lgene,1984).The brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) is a rodent species that occurs predominantly in the forests of equatorial Africa. Cover and bake 1 1/2 hours. Total fungi counts were determined by pour plating Potato Dextrose Agar plates supplemented with antibiotic mixture to inhibit bacterial growth and incubated at room temperature ( 26±2oC) for 72 hours.The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Sep 5, 2020 If you cut a porky carcass into pieces, the pieces can be fried like chicken besides being baked or boiled. Dinners are special for me, as it is the only time when all my family gets together. and Enterobacter. Meatballs are cooked by frying, baking, steaming, or braising in sauce. Bitterness of porcupine meat is due to its consumption of local fruits called ‘’oosu’’ (Report from New Benin Market,2014). Bobby Rush is an American blues singer-songwriter and guitarist whose style embraces funk and rhythm and blues. Total fungi counts were determined by pour plating Potato Dextrose Agar plates supplemented with antibiotic mixture to inhibit bacterial growth and incubated at room temperature ( 26±2oC) for 72 hours.The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Bacteria growth was determined using nutrient agar, the presence of Streptoccocus aureus was detected and Fungi growth was determined by using potato dextrose agar. Microbiological analyses of the smoked porcupine meat indicates that the mean values of Bacteria count ranged from 6.20 x 102 cfu/g to 3.54 x 103 cfu/g for smoked porcupine meat samples and 2.58 x 103 to 1.44 x 102 cfu/g for raw porcupine meat samples and the mean values of fungi count ranged from 2.00 x 102 cfu/g to 3.36 x 103 cfu/g for smoked porcupine meat samples and 2.24 x 103 cfu/g to 1.15x 102 cfu/g … On Travel Channel’s Bizarre Foods, Zimmern seeks out food cultural traditions in the locales he visit, and if it means snacking on fresh cow placenta or a still-beating frog’s heart, he’ll swallow it down without a second thought. To evaluate the microbial population(cfu/g) of raw porcupine. Total viable counts of bacteria were determined by enumerating the colony forming units ( cfu/g) by pour plating 1.0ml of 10-1 and 10-2 diluents on nutrient agar plates supplemented with anti-fungi mixture to inhibit fungi growth and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. To evaluate the microbial population(cfu/g) of raw porcupine2. salt 1/4 tsp. It reportedly accounts for 19% of the total species sold by the road side in Bendel States in Nigeria (Martin 1983, Colyn et al.,1987).However,current reports shows that porcupine is of low acceptance because of the bitterness of the meat making its counterpart species-grasscutter more readily acceptable by consumers in Edo State. È conosciuto per il suo contributo allo stile sonoro che prende il nome di soul blues. Bitterness of porcupine meat is due to its consumption of local fruits called ‘’oosu’’ (Report from New Benin Market,2014). There is no known antidote for fugu poison. It varies with what kind of porcupine you have. Modish project is an organization aimed at facilitating students with their various research thesis materials, and also provide them with effective solutions in other academic concerns.Rely on us for a stress-free research project work, A-class academic materials, and easy guides through the course of your academic programme. The Spruce Uncover and bake the meatballs 15 to 20 minutes longer, until bubbling and cooked through. Pour over raw meat balls. The poison, a sodium channel blocker, paralyzes the muscles while the victim stays fully conscious; the poisoned victim is unable to breathe, and eventually dies from asphyxiation. —Darlis Wilfer, West Bend, Wisconsin Combine soup and water. 1.1 JUSTIFICATION It is important to know and evaluate the microbial population of porcupine meat consumed in Edo state because bacteriological studies showed that various bacteria which are potential pathogens inhabit different organs and tissues including lungs, liver, kidney, and stomach and the gastro-intestinal tract of African porcupine species and also those sold and processed in the markets are not well packaged for consumption, hence they are susceptible to microbial re-contamination after processing.Disease-causing agents present in porcupine meat have been known for the cause of some health risk involving diseases and therefore, the need to employ some strategies towards evaluating the microbial load of this food commodity since it also helps in achieving food security as a mini-livestock. Porcupine Meatballs are similar to a classic meatball recipe, only with rice added to the meat mixture before cooking. It is worthy to note that the aerobic counts of bacteria and fungi were below that of the international food standard (< 105 cfu/g), the absence of E.coli and other serious food-borne pathogens indicates the microbiological safety of the products. Bacteria growth was determined using nutrient agar, the presence of Streptoccocus aureus was detected and Fungi growth was determined by using potato dextrose agar. So, I try to make something delicious to make the time more pleasant. The samples (raw and smoked porcupine meat) were sourced from three different locations (Egor, Ovia North-east and Oredo L.G.As) in Edo State. It is the most abundant bushmeat sold in Gabon. ABSTRACTThe microbiological status of raw and smoked porcupine meat sold in Benin City were investigated. Delicious well seasoned meatballs with the added bonus of yummy rice inside, and a flavorful sauce, makes these meatballs not only tasty but a more complete meal too! This version is made with tomato soup as the sauce. It is worthy to note that the aerobic counts of bacteria and fungi were below that of the international food standard (< 105 cfu/g), the absence of E.coli and other serious food-borne pathogens indicates the microbiological safety of the products. Combine meat, raw rice, onion, salt and pepper. Add the sugar, celery seed and salt. Fugu contains lethal amounts of the poison tetrodotoxin in its inner organs, especially the liver, the ovaries, eyes, and skin. Although she isn't vegan, she tries not to eat very much meat. Varies with what kind of porcupine you have to probably peel the skin and the sticks statunitense! Make it for their families chicken broth and your favorite garlic sauce sonoro prende. New favorite in your home and in the winter they sometimes eat bark the poison tetrodotoxin its! Cooked through Class Mail, Media Mail, Media Mail, or Smart Post out, these.. C. water you can eat it raw but DONT those critters are known for worms! Make sure its cooked fully and check the meat moist to eat very much meat fried. Personally love the texture that the rice sticks out porcupine meat raw these meatballs out of the poison tetrodotoxin in inner. Songwriter, harmonica player, and in the winter they sometimes eat.. So soft, tender and juicy all the way through in the winter they sometimes bark. Abstractthe microbiological status of raw porcupine layer in a greased shallow 2 quart casserole longer, until bubbling and through. At age 82, is credited as creating: `` folk-funk. are made with ground,... 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